Active Directory (AD)
Active Directory is a directory service created by Microsoft for Windows domain networks. It offers a central location for network administration and security and for controlling the whole network from one computer. For example, Active Directory (AD) can check the password and determine where a login user is a system administrator or general user.

Active Server Page (ASP)
Active Server Page (ASP) is a HTML page that includes one or more scripts (small embedded programs) that are processed on Microsoft Web Server before the page is sent to user. It was subsequently included in Window Server as free component.

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a type of a data communications technology allows a fast data transmission over copper telephone line, which requires no cable connection, but makes a broadband internet connectivity.

Adware is any software program or application that advertising can be displayed together during the program is running in different formats, e.g. pop-up windows, bar aside or banner. In most cases, Adware would be installed without users' consent.

Antivirus Software
Antivirus software is to protect devices against viruses and malicious software

A program used to perform a specific task. It is also known as ""APP"" in mobile devices.

Authentication is to verify the identity of a user who is accessing a resource in a network.


Bandwidth means a amount of information or data to be transmitted over a network connection in a given period of time. Bandwidth is usually measured in bits per second (bps), kilobits per second (kbps) or megabits per second (mbps).

In internet world, Bookmark is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that record the website address as a shortcut which allow users to retrieve the website quickly and easily in the later days. All web browsers support bookmark features. User have to save the website URL as bookmark or favorite link through web browser to work out the function.

Browser is also known as web browser that is a client or program used to access the World Wide Web (WWW). Microsoft Internet Explorer is one of the web browsers.

Backup is a copy of information or data for security purpose. It is commonly used in business world as hardware failure or accidental deletion can cause loss of important data.

Basic Input-Out System (BIOS)
Basic Input-Out System (BIOS) is also known as system BIOS or ROM BIOS, which is installed in ROM chip on the motherboard of a PC device. BIOS functions to configure the hardware components such as the hard disk and also works for boot and reload the operating system.

Bug is an error, flaw, mistake or fault in the design of a computer program or system that stop it working normally.

A bit is the basic capacity of information in computing and have a value of either 1 or Zero (contraction of binary digit).

Bytes is unit of computer storage space. It means a group of eight bits and store a number between 0 and 255.


CAPEX (Capital expenditures)

CAPEX (Capital Expenditures) are business expenditures used to buy fixed assets or upgrade physical assets in order to create future benefits.

Cable is also known as optical fiber cable that is for broadband transmission and internet access.

Cache in computing world is a memory or storage space that transparently and temporarily stores data of recently accessed data. The next request of the same data can be served by simply reading the cache and then be retrieved faster.

Client is an application or system that accesses a service made by server through a network. For example, Outlook is an email client to handle the request with server.

Cookie is also known as HTTP cookie, web cookie or browser cookie. Cookie is a small piece of data sent from a website and shored in a user's web browser. When the user review the same website through that browser in later days, the data stored in the cookie can be retrieved. Cookie can record the preference or pattern of visiting website.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a software integrates Sales, Support and Marketing functionality and is available as hosted service with monthly subscription based, such as Microsoft Dynamics CRM.

Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit / Central Processor Unit (CPU) is a hardware within a computer or smartphone system, which is the "Brain" of the system to carry out instructions of the system operation.


Database is a structured collection of data that allows retrieval, sorting and reorganization of the data.

Device driver
Device driver also known as software driver is a computer program that control the operations of hardware that is attached to computer. It generally needs to install a device driver in a computer system so to make the device workable.

Data Transfer Rate (DTR)
Data Transfer Rate (DTR) is the speed of data being transferred between devices. DTR is always expressed in kilobits or megabits per second (kbps and mbps), kilobytes or megabytes (KB/sec and MB/sec)

Dedicated in computing world is always used to mean dedicated hosting service, dedicated server or managed hosting service, which is a type of internet hosting service that that an entire server is reserved to manage communications between all other computers in a network for a specific user or group of users, not shared with others.

Dial Up
Dial-up is a form of internet access that uses public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a dialed connection to an Internet service provider (ISO) through telephone lines.

Disk Space
Disk space is capacity of storage space of a computer or random-access memory devices, such as hard drive, floppy disk and USB flash drive. Disk space are commonly measured in units: bytes - kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes.

Domain Name System (DNS)
Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers connected to internet or private network. DNS resolves queries for these names, such as website address into IP address for locating the computer and devices.

Domain Name Registration
Domain Name Registration is a process of registering your domain name with an official internet registrar, so that you domain name would not be used by others.

Denial Of Service (DOS) Attack
Denial Of Service (DOS) is a form of attacking computer systems over a network. Common forms of DoS attaches include buffer overflow attacks, smurf attack, virus and physical infrastructure attacks, which generally slow down or stop the server and the relevant services to users.

Download means to retrieve a copy of a file from a host server to your local computer device.


Electronic Commerce
Electronic Commerce is also known as e-commerce which is a transaction of products or services over electronic system such as internet world.

E-mail client
E-mail client, also known as mail user agent (MUA), is an application program used to send and receive email and manage a user's email, such as Outlook.

Email Forwarding
Email forwarding means to resend an email message to another email address


FAQ = Frequently Asked Questions

Firewall is a protection mechanism used to keep a network secure, which can be either be a software-based or hardware-based. Firewall is like a barrier to block external connection such as internet to internal network.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer (download and upload) files between two computers over the internet. FTP is built on a client-server and it needs to install a FTP clients to make the connection to the server


Global Address List (GAL)
Global Address List (GAL) is also known as Microsoft Exchange Local Address Book, which is a directory service in Microsoft Exchange Email system. GAL covers information for all email users and distribution groups.

Gigabyte (GB)
Gigabyte is an information storage unit and equals to 1,024 megabytes (=1,073,741,824 bytes).

Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) (.gif)
Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a bitmap image format that is commonly used to display the images on the website. GIF supports animation and allows up to 256 specific colors for each frame.


Hacker is someone who finds weakness in a computer or network then attempts to access to that computer system without authorization through a process called penetration.

Hard disk
Hard disk, also known as Hard disk drive (HDD) and hard drive, is a data storage device containing a rigid magnetic disk in a sealer metal housing inside a computer and used to store and retrieve digital information.

Hardware is the physical components that comprise a computer system, such as monitor, keyboard, hard disk, sound cards and so on.

HE or Hosted Exchange
Hosted Exchange is a hosting service of Microsoft Exchange Email platform provided by outsouring IT services provider, like Superhub. The server is at provider's data center and provider manages the hosted data. Hence, the clients do not need to build own server but they can access their email, address book and documents through their own devices.

Homepage is the main web page or start page of a website.

HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a code or programming language for displaying web pages layout and content by using web browser. Common extension format are .html and .htm.

HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP)
HyperText Transport Protocol (HTTP) is the foundation of data communication for World Wide Web and used to send HTML documents across the web.

Hyperlink, also known as Link, is a reference that readers can directly follow. Hyperlink is used to navigate the reader to browse the hypertext and graphic or points to a whole documents or another webpage.


Internet Protocol (IP) is a principal communication protocol that address hosts and routing datagram (packets) from one host to another host across one or more IP networks, i.e. the data is sent from one computer to another on the internet or among the same private network.

IP Address
Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a 32-bit numeric label assigned to each device in a computer network that use Internet protocol (IP) for communication. IP address can identify a host or network interface and address the location of computer devices.

Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is a standard protocol for email retrieval and it supports both on-line and off-line modes of operation. Incoming email messages are sent to email server and stores the messages in the user's email box, then the user can retrieve the messages with an email client.

Information Security Management System (ISMS)
Information Security Management System (ISMS) is a set of policies about information security and risk management, such as ISO 27001.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an recognized international standard that ensure the products and services are in good quality. Any organization is certified with ISO on specific area means their operation, products or services has met the certain requirements for the standard.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a company or an organization who provides access to the internet.


Java is a programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that is widely used for computing platforms.

Javascript is a scripting language commonly used for web browser in order to enhance user interfaces and dynamic websites.

JPEG (.jpg)
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG or JPG) is a digital image format. JPEG is compressed so as to be stored with less space but also damaged in image quality. The compression can be adjusted depending on the file size and image quality that you target.


Kilobyte is a information storage unit and equals to 1,024 bytes


Local Area Network (LAN)
Local Area Network (LAN) is a computer networks that interconnects computers in a specific area, such as same building or floor of a building.

Login, also known as logon, is a credential required to access to a computer system or program with entering a user name and password so that system can identify an authorized user.

Link is also known as Hyperlink. See hyperlink


Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI)
Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI) is a Microsoft Windows program that allows client programs to become email messaging-enabled, messaging-aware and messaging-based by calling MAPI subsystems routines that interface with messaging servers. MAPI is also designed for Microsoft Outlook to communicate with Microsoft Exchange.

Megabyte is a information storage unit and equals to 1,048,576 bytes.

Memory in computing world refers to physical devices that used to store programs or data. Random-access memory (RAM) is the most common type of memory.

Modem means Modulator-demodulator, which is a device that modulates and analog waves to encode digital information and also demodulates carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. It is used to connect computers and do the communication between the computers through the phone system.

Multimedia is a media that combines different types of medium, such as combination of text, images, video, audio and animation.

Motherboard is a circuit board in a computer that holds the hardware such as CPU, memory, hard disk and other components and connect them to work together.


Network means a two or more computer interconnecting to share resources and information. Most common network types are local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN).


OPEX or Opex (Operating expenditures)
OPEX means operating expenditures for running business or systems.

Online means a state of connectivity, such as connecting to network or internet.

Operating system (OS)
Operating System is a software to control computer systems. It is the basic elements to boot computer, process the hardware such as keyboard and hard disk input, and run the programs installed in the computer. Most common operating systems is Microsoft Window.


Personal Computer (PC)
Personal Computer (PC) is designed for individuals use only with no intervening computer operator.

Portable Document Format (PDF)
Portable Document Format (PDF) is a document file format with fixed layout to preserve the text, images and fonts.

Peer-to-peer (P2P)
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) means a way to share files with another computers through network directly without through a server

Phishing is a form of internet fraud that attempts to acquire or trick people to disclose confidential information such as credit card details, usernames and passwords by masquerading as a trusted entity, such as receiving a fake email from an official organization.

Plugin is software component that is added to work with other software application to perform additional features. Some web pages elements such as graphic can only be displayed properly in a web browser with particular plugin installed.

Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a encryption and decryption program that allows to exchange files and message with cryptographic privacy and authentication. PGP is used for signing, encrypting and decrypting texts, files and email message to increase the security during communication.

PHP is an open source scripting language designed to produce dynamic webpages and web development.

Ping is a network administration tool used to test if another network node is reachable from your local host on a IP network.

Portal, also known as Web portal, is a website that functions as a entry accessing to information on the internet.

Pay Per Click is an internet advertising of a marketing campaign that is used to draw traffic to specific website. The advertising model is commonly used in search engine. When a user search relevant information and click on the advertisement link displayed on the search engine, the user will be directed to your website. The advertiser have to pay for that click to the publisher, i.e. the search engine.

Protocol means common rules that regulate how different objects communicate with each another through a network.

Post Office Protocol (POP)
Post Office Protocol (POP) is standard email protocol used by local email client to download email from a remote server over TCP/IP connection. POP3 (3 is the version) is the current standard version and one of the most common email protocols.


Query is a form of request for information from a database.


Random Access Memory (RAM)
Random Access Memory (RAM) is a computer data storage what allows to stored data to be accessed quickly in any random order. When computer power is switched off, data stored in RAM is lost.

Rebooting is a process to restart a computer system.

Removable storage
Removable storage means any devices that can be removed from a computer, such as CDs, external harddisk, USB flash memory stick and so on.

Resolution is a common display unit for computer monitor, television and digital camera. It describes the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. The higher resolution is, the better quality of images it displays. High resolution images occupy more storage space and require more processing to complete the handling request.

Read-Only Memory (ROM)
Read-only Memory is a computer storage medium. Data stored in ROM cannot be change or only can be changed with difficulty. As the data stored is fixed and preserved, switching off the computer power would not lead to data loss.

Router is a device to forward the data packets between computer networks. A router can connect to two or more data lines from different networks and share the same internet connection, so as to create an overlay internetwork.


Safe mode
Safe mode is a diagnostic mode of a computer operating system and intends to fix all the problems within the operation system. In a safe mode, only the most important drivers are loaded such as the keyboard and mouse so the computer still can be controlled.

Script is a program written for a command interpreter or other scripting language and executed by another program.

In a computer device, Shortcut means an icon on the desktop or folder which points to an object file, document or software application, so user can access to that object quickly and directly.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a standard of email transmission and user can send email message to server through internet protocol (IP). Email can be received through Post Office Protocol (POP), Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or Microsoft Exchange to access the mail box accounts on a mail server.

Software, also known as computer software, is computer program or application that are loaded to computer's memory and process a set of instructions for advising computer how and what to do.

Spam means electronic junk email which is generally unsolicited advertising email.

Spyware is a program and also a type of malware (malicious software) that is generally hidden from user and intends to monitor the user's using computer and steal the confidential information of the users.

Storage means the hardware capacity space for storing data.

Search Engine
Search Engine, also known as web search engine, is to search for relevant information on the internet. The search result will be displayed based on the keywords you searched and relevancy to the keywords and also the rules set by each search engine services provider.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)
Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a process of influencing the visibility and exposure of a website in search engine's natural result. To improve the ranking of the website on the search engine and exposure, web page content and keywords relevancy can be adjusted from time to time and work out the effect.

Server is a physical computer that is dedicated to handle one or more services as a host and serve the request of other users' computers on a network. It could functions as different kinds of servers, such as file server, email server, database server, web server, and so on.

Service Provider
Service Provider is a company that provides hosted product and services to users, such as Superhub is a Hosted and Cloud Products Services Providers.

Structured Query Language (SQL)
Structured Query Language (SQL) is a programming language designed for managing data in relational database management systems (RDBMS) and used to create, maintain and query databases.


TCP/IP, the Internet Protocol Suite, is a set of communications protocols used for internet and other networks.

Telnet is a network protocol in the TCP/IP suite that allows users to log on to and remote computer if they are on the terminal that are connected to the device.


URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) means a address of the resources such as document link on the internet

USB Flash Drive
USB Flash Drive is a data storage device that carries flash memory on an integrated Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. Data stored in USB Flash Drive can be removable and rewritable.


Webmail, also known as web-base email, means the email to be accessed through web browser instead of email client, such as Microsoft Outlook.

Worm in computer world means a malware computer program that replicates itself and send copies to other computers so as to infect them. Worms generally cause harm to network.

World Wide Web
World Wide Web (WWW) is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the internet.